Dec 29, 2011
29 different species of Finland Classification Reign Animalia Branch Chordata Sub-ember. Vertebrate Class Aves Linnaeus , 1758 Subclasses of subordinated Paleognathae Néognathes Phylogenetic classification Position: Diapsids Archosaurs Dinosaurs Birds Crocodilians Lépidosauriens Sphénodontiens Squamates Find this taxon on Wikispecies Other multimedia documents are available on Commons The birds (or class of Aves ) are vertebrate tetrapods winged belonging to clade of dinosaurs . If there are nearly 10 000 species of birds, both in their very different ecology than by their behavior, each of which presents a common set of features obvious to the group. Birds have such a beak , the feathers , the wings and lay eggs . Birds are remarkable for their ability to fly , with some exceptions ( Struthioniformes , penguins …), especially since this feature is particularly rare in vertebrates. They inhabit all walks of Antarctic ice to rain forests and deserts. This was made possible by adaptations anatomical, physiological and behavioral (especially migration) varied. All these characteristics are studied by ornithologists . Initially, the French language had to designate the birds, generic names based solely on morphology as prey , vultures , waders , ducks , parrots , swallows , geese , swans , etc.. or their use as poultry or waterfowl , some of which term does not have the same birds from one region to another, as “ Royalist “. Then with the advent of systematic , ornithologists have created more names based on the anatomy to combinations suitable for a taxonomic classification . These are passed into everyday language, but many were found polyphyletic , eg waterfowl . During the xx th century , the classification has evolved by combining the different species according to more subtle affinities. Another revolution in the taxonomy occurred during the year 1990 , with the appearance of a classification based on genetic , ie techniques of DNA hybridization . It is generally accepted in America, while the resistance is more important in Europe. Unlike most dui lawyer chicago other animals, each species of bird has a single standard French name assigned by the International Commission of the French names of birds . Summary [ hide ] 1 Morphology and anatomy 1.1 Morphology 1.1.1 General Appearance 1.1.2 The plumage 1.1.3 The bill 1.1.4 Legs 1.2 Anatomy 2 Biology of the bird 2.1 Power 2.2 homeothermy 2.3 Genetics 2.4 Biological Rhythms 2.4.1 Sleep 2.4.2 The renewal of the plumage 2.4.3 Migration 2.5 Activities of comfort 2.6 Longevity of the bird 2.7 Health 2.7.1 Parasites of birds 2.7.2 Avian Diseases 3 Behaviour 3.1 The meaning 3.2 Intelligence 3.3 Movement 3.4 Personality 3.5 Relationship between birds 3.5.1 Communication 3.5.2 Relations intraspecific 184.108.40.206 Types of pair 220.127.116.11 Matching 18.104.22.168 The rearing 22.214.171.124 Social Relationships 3.5.3 Interspecific 126.96.36.199 Interspecific Parasitism 188.8.131.52 Predation 184.108.40.206 Commensalism birds 4 Distribution 4.1 Areas of distribution 4.2 Evolution of the distributions 5 Evolutionary History 6 The relationship between birds and humans 6.1 Economic and social role of birds 6.1.1 Role of food 220.127.116.11 Poultry 18.104.22.168 Hunting and Fishing 6.1.2 Roles in human societies 6.1.3 commercial use of their image 6.2 The birds in human culture 6.2.1 The symbolism of the bird 6.2.2 The birds in French 6.2.3 Birds of fiction 22.214.171.124 The mythical bird 126.96.36.199 Tales 188.8.131.52 The activities 184.108.40.206 The Film 220.127.116.11 Birds in Art 6.2.4 famous Birds 6.2.5 Religion 6.3 Study of Birds 6.3.1 The various sciences studied in birds 6.3.2 The laboratory birds 6.3.3 Classification and nomenclature 18.104.22.168 Use and etymology of the word bird 22.214.171.124 History of Criminal Attorney Chicago the scientific classification of birds 6.4 The difficult relationship between birds and men 6.4.1 Diseases transmitted to humans 6.4.2 Fight against birds 6.4.3 Action of rights in the current disparity 6.4.4 Protection of Birds 7 Appendices 7.1 References taxonomic 7.2 Sources 7.3 Notes 7.4 Orientation bibliographic 7.4.1 General works 7.4.2 Birds of the World 7.4.3 Birds by geographical areas 7.4.4 Birds by systematic groups 7.4.5 Selection of scientific journals of high essential 7.4.6 Selection magazine readership in amateur 7.5 Related 7.6 External Link Morphology and anatomy
Morphology General appearance A bird is an animal with four members , the body covered with feathers , a beak without horny teeth . Its hind legs are legs and forelegs of wings allowing most of them to fly . The type of flight and performance that these species can produce are very diverse. Their weight varies from a few grams for hummingbirds to over 100 kg for ostriches . Related article: Identification of birds . The morphology of birds is adapted to their habitat and their way of life. The birds on the beaches or in the marshes have, for example, wedding ring long legs. The shape of the beak, any observer can easily deduce the diet . The study of the wings, it is easy to deduce, for example, if the bird can fly. If it is migratory, its wings have a more tapered end, the wings more rounded at the end show a more sedentary. The morphology of the head also contains many elements that identify specific species such as the presence of a crest of a ridge , the caruncle of vibrissa , the barb of wax nose . Plumage and color can also be ways to recognize a species. Some have surprising decorative feathers like the tail feathers of the tail straws , lyrebird or that of the peacock male. Morphology of a Vanellus malabaricus Beak Cap Lore Coat Abdomen Thigh Tibio-tarsal Tarsus Finger Belly Tibia Side chest throat and gorget Wattle Iris Plumage small and medium coverage Scapular feathers Plumage small and medium coverage Feathers tertiary Rectrices Primaries Birds have no external genitalia. The ears are hidden under the outer feathers and no flag. The ear-shaped feathers in the owls are not useful in the hearing. The plumage
Structure of a feather Birds are the only animals to possess feathers , plumage is also a good way to recognize a species. There are many kinds of feathers are the feathers, which are distinguished one : according to their appearance: the filoplumes (located under the ordinary feathers); the down ; the vibrissae (stiff hair-like); the feathers narrow sense according to their base: the flight feathers (located on the foreleg, they allow the flight); the tail (or tail feathers, they have different roles in the theft, such as braking or steering); the coverts (feathers cover).
Camouflage of small Owl The feathers and the different kinds of specialized feathers that compose them have many features for the bird, the most universal is the thermal insulation, which helps to maintain the internal temperature of tetrapods homeotherms . For some species, the plumage may provide camouflage effectively. For others, the plumage of the males is used in courtship displays or is essential to seduction. Thus, the juvenile and sexually immature individuals usually have a particular plumage changing, usually gradually, until their first breeding season 2 . The state of plumage also allows a female to determine the health of a male. Finally, for many species, feathers are essential for the flight. The shape of some feathers indicates whether the species is able to fly or not.
The shape of the beaks of birds are adapted to their mode of nutrition Their number varies from 1000 for a hummingbird to over 25 000 for a swan . The feathers represent a significant weight among the frigates it represents over 50% of the total weight and in passerines, about a third two . Apart from the ostrich , the toucans and the penguins , the implementation of the feathers is not uniform: they grow on surface areas (ptérylies) bare areas are called wingless one . The beak In birds, jaws and mandibles lacking teeth are covered with the rhampothèque, sheath consists of one or more blades horn. The horn regrowth as and when it wears. The shape of the beak is often adapted to the diet of the bird : its beak is hooked and generally robust among raptors , massive and conical in granivores , late in insectivores , elongated and sensitive in species that dig in sediments , etc.. The base of the beak and nostrils are sometimes protected by a soft zone and bare, often colorful, wax called one . Legs The two legs are covered with scales or scutes , whose color varies among species, and have fingers with claws. The arrangement of the fingers of legs varies greatly avian groups.
The shape of the legs allows the identification of birds The arrangement anisodactyle (three toes forward and one back) is most common in birds and is found as such Denver Divorce Lawyer in their ancestral theropods characterized by their four fingers. This is true of most songbirds, birds that are roosting and raptors . The arrangement syndactyly is a partial fusion of the fourth and third fingers as in the Kingfisher America and characterizes Coraciiformes . The arrangement zygodactyle (the ancient Greek ζυγον , “yoke”) is a migration of the fingers is the most common arrangements for tree species, especially those who climb the trunks as Picinae the Sittidae and Psittaciformes . The arrangement is similar to previous hétérodactyle except that the fingers 3 and 4 are moving forward and the numbers 1 and 2 are moving backwards. This configuration is found only in Trogonidae . The pamprodactyles have four toes forward, is a characteristic of Apodidae . The trydactylie is rare and is found in very different species such as kittiwakes or three-toed woodpecker . The didactyle is found among paléognathes like the ostrich .
1 – palmate 2 – lobed 3 – not webbed 4 – semi-palmate In addition, some birds have a webbing between their fingers like the teal , the gulls and geese . Anisodactyles species whose four fingers are connected by a membrane like crazy , the cormorants or pelicans are said totipalmidés. Other species have a web lobed as in grebes and coots , or semi-webbed as in avocets , the terns , and terns , not webbed as in kingfishers , cranes , nightjars , partridge , raptors 3 .
A pin of a turkey The shape of the legs depends mainly on the lifestyle of the bird and its diet. Thus, the raptors have talons , the webbed feet of waterfowl or lobed. The flightless birds, such as the ostrich , are didactyle. Most species have a spur, or ergot , on their feet. Anatomy Main article: Anatomy of birds . Some anatomical features of birds resemble those of reptiles or those of mammals . They are warm-blooded and oviparous . The anatomy of birds shows many unusual adaptations in the animal kingdom, many of which aims to facilitate the flight of these adaptations exist even among species of birds can not fly. The adaptations for flight anatomy are found naturally in the morphology of the skeleton of the bird but also in that of his bones . Many of them are hollow and merge with the air sacs which are the organs of the respiratory system 4 . In fact, the skeleton of birds is very light (about 15% of the total weight of the bird). The respiratory system of birds is one of the most complex and most effective of the animal kingdom 5 . At the base of the trachea is the vps hosting vocal organ of birds, the syrinx .
Structure of the skeleton of a bird’s wing The wings are an adaptation to flight, but as stated in the theory of evolution , the wing before the flight. The transformation of the forelimb wing was accompanied by a reduction of bone in the phalanges, the number of fingers, the carpus and metacarpus. There are also various adaptations in the spine including the vertebrae of the neck that allow a significant bending or rotation of the neck for many birds by bending against the back of the body is very limited due to the fusion of some vertebrae ( pygostyle and synsacrum ). In birds that fly, sternum, highly developed, is called a peak median keel , serving for the insertion of flight muscles (pectoral muscles). All birds, even those who do not fly, have a furcula , pay day loan that is to say, the two clavicles fused. The skeleton is also simplified in the hind legs: the fibula , very small, is welded to the tibia , the bones of the tarsus have certain welded with the tibia (forming the tibio-tarsal) and others with the metatarsal ( forming the tarso-metatarsal). The anatomy of their digestive system responds to the need to satisfy a metabolic level 6 , the flight as a means of transport-intensive energy . Such as reptiles, birds are fitted with a vent and like them, birds are primarily uricotéliques , excretion of uric acid and urates and not amino uréolétique (excretion of a combination of ammonia and of urea ). Among the feces, there is the creatine while mammals eliminate the creatinine . If as in mammals and crocodilians , their heart has four chambers, it is nevertheless the aortic arch to the right that persists when it is the left in mammals. In addition, erythrocytes have nuclei avian 5 , 7 .
Anatomy of a chicken 1 – heart 2 – lungs 3 – testes 4 – kidneys . The nervous system is, on average, slightly larger than that of reptiles, but less than that of mammals. Without exception, the visual area is particularly developed which reflects the unique visual performance and the olfactory area is reduced except for certain species such as vultures or kiwis 8 . The size of the telencephalon and their cerebellum makes possible their vocals and amazing capacity for learning and abstraction high enough in some species. The birds eye is a very complex organ. The internal organs of sense of balance ( semicircular canals ) and hearing ( cochlea ) are much more developed than those of reptiles. The reproductive tract of birds resembles that of reptiles oviparous . Some anatomical adaptations may depend on lifestyle, such as those related to food, which is easily observable at the beaks and digestive systems . They may also be related to the latitude where they live and thus adaptation to cold in birds, for example the Nordic traffic is against the current in the legs, so as to reduce heat loss 5 . Some of these adaptations are temporary: eg some migratory birds have the ability to reduce the size of their organs before migration 9 . Biology of the bird
The flamingos are birds that filter plankton water with their beaks trimmed with horny excrescences in the shape of baleen Power The diets as well as strategies for food vary widely. Some species may be opportunistic as scavengers , or they may find food in specific places such as nectarivorous or frugivorous. Birds can also be herbivores, granivores, or predators such as carnivores, insectivores, piscivores, plankton or cleptoparasites. The sharp-beaked Geospiza is even known to be hematophagous . Some species ( Great Cormorant , Spoonbill , etc..) can hunt or fish in groups … Many birds are generalists; other species, experts say, occupy niches specific 10 and consume only one type of food, or at least very few. The high metabolism of birds are forced to consume large amounts of energy. Thus, the fresh weight of food ingested each day can amount to about 40% of body mass thrushes , nearly 100% among swallows , warblers , kinglets and troglodytes and 200% for Hummingbirds 11 . Resistance to fasting is usually low, eg 24 h or less in the swallows and the swift , but may be several days or even weeks in diurnal raptors 11 . As they have no teeth, birds often swallow their food whole, but they can be crushed with the beak, or butchered, plucked, shredded, peeled, depending on species and the nature of the food . The food will be crushed in the gizzard . The digestive system of birds makes them especially sensitive enough to toxins food. Homeothermy Birds are warm-blooded animals, that is to say that the internal temperature is kept constant, regardless of outside temperature. Their high metabolism and their feathers are involved in this regulation, the average internal temperature of birds is high enough (usually between 40 and 42 ° C). Genetics The system of sex determination is of type WZ / ZZ 12 . In the WZ system of sex determination, females have two chromosomes of different types sex (WZ), while males have two sex chromosomes of the same type (ZZ). However the general pattern of sex determination is not well known and weight loss pills very different from that observed in mammals 12 . The genome of birds is original in several respects, the physical size of the genome is low among vertebrates and 2 to 8 times shorter than in mammals 13 . The genome is relatively homogeneous with 60 to 75% of unique sequences 13 . The range of variations in the number diploid is quite extensive: 40 for the stone curlew ( Burhinus oedicnemus ) to 138 for the kingfisher ( Alcedo atthis ) 13 with a Gaussian distribution with up to 85. One of the major genetic and unique avian genome is the heterogeneity in size of chromosomes. The ratio between the shortest and the longest chromosome is 1 in 35 in the domestic fowl and 1-15 in Accipitridae 14 . The microchromosomes of conventional karyotypes of birds, contrary to what was assumed in the first cytogenetic studies, major elements of the genome 15 . The bird breeders are particularly attentive to the genetics of their birds in an attempt to express certain alleles seen that increase the value of them. This is common practice for many exotic and sparrows Psittacidae in which farmers select unusual colors, such is the case of the peach-faced lovebird 16 . Genetics is essential to determine their precise phylogeny and thus to understand their evolution. The new taxonomy called Sibley-Ahlquist is based on data from the studies using the techniques of DNA hybridization . Biological rhythms Main article: Chronobiology .
The Kiwi (here, Apteryx australis ) has many characteristics. Wingless, but with a good sense of smell is a nocturnal bird The bird life is organized according to several biological rhythms . The most common vertebrate is the circadian rhythm . Most birds are diurnal , but some birds, like most owls and Caprimulgidae , and many owls are nocturnal or crepuscular. Other species, like most waders , follow a lifestyle based on the tide 17 . Birds due to the existence of the seasons also follow a circannual rhythm. The birds that migrate long distances generally undergo anatomical changes or behavioral (eg Zugunruhe ) or driven to prepare for this trip. Depending on the season, some species may also make commuting, height, for example, or to go on feeding grounds. Seasonal and circadian rhythms appear to be related to day length. Reproductive cycles are annual, several nesting can take place in a season for some species particularly prolific. Sleep The daily activity of most birds includes rest periods and short periods of sleep . This is known as vigilant sleep, the birds frequently open their eyes and observe the surroundings to allow escape in case of threat 18 . The sleep of birds present a phase of REM sleep shorter than the estimated average of less than one minute 19 , although Spheniscidae , holding a record in the class , to capitalize 80 minutes of REM sleep per day 19 . Some species such as albatrosses or swifts , are deemed to sleep while flying 19 , 20 or are able to stay several days without sleep. However, there is no experimental evidence.
Pink-eared ducks asleep The behavior associated with sleep is very different in different families of birds. Many species are able to reduce their body temperature 21 , or even enter torpor as Trochilidae 22 while the Common Poorwill hibernate 23 . The Anserinae are the only birds known in which occurs a loss of muscle tone . The state of sleep is very recognizable in these species that flee their beak under a wing and often pose one chiropractic marketing of their feet on the ground 24 . Many ground nesting species such as Phasianinae , take refuge in height from predators, sometimes together, to sleep while a few parrots of the genus loriculus perch upside down 25 . Many species have a special insertion of tendons of the fingers, so that when installed on a limb, finger flexion is automatic, this would allow them to sleep perched without falling from the tree one . The renewal of the plumage
Young King Penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) during the moult that will allow it to move from a juvenile plumage to adult plumage The plumage is regularly renewed at least once a year 2 , during the moult . Depending on the species, it can have multiple roles. It allows some species to change color of plumage, both for reproduction and for camouflage, but also allow for better thermal blanket. It can also precede migration. The birds also carry a molting juvenile plumage to spend the adult plumage. Apart from shedding before nesting, the females of many species lose the down beneath their bellies. Under the skin, in this particular place so-called bare brood patch , there are many blood vessels. The eggs will then be in closer contact with the skin warmed by the blood vessels: this promotes good incubation 26 . The loss of feathers, as the absence of moulting may also signal an illness. Migration Main article: Migration of birds .
The bird migration is an opportunity for birders to capture, banding and measuring birds before releasing them. Here, a hoopoe is already ringed measured Portugal , during its spring migration between tropical Africa and Western Europe Migration is a regular movement, with annual daily observed in many species of birds. Such displacement can take very different forms depending on the species and induce other behaviors, such as food, very specific. This is a major effort for many birds die. Well known in these migrations are expected by the hunters, fears aerodrome managers and some aspects still confuse scientists, who are still trying to understand how the birds are to reach their destination. These trips are a way for migratory species to escape from a change in habitat or reduced food availability due to the rigors of adverse climate, but can also be interpreted as a maximization of reproductive success. Activities of comfort Birds use a portion of their time in activities called comfort. According to some authors, they spend 9.2% of their active period for this 27 . One of the activities of comfort is the most common smoothing their feathers with their waxy oil gland . The usefulness of this practice is discussed but it seems that this wax acts on the flexibility of feathers, and also hcg diet reviews as an agent antimicrobial that inhibits the growth of bacteria degrading feathers 28 . More than 250 species complement these secretions with the formic acid derived from ants 29 . The sessions of grooming may be mutual.
Turkey taking a dust bath Many birds also love to swim in water and some (including Phasianidae and sparrows ) in soil or dust . Longevity of the bird The life of birds is highly variable depending on the species, it may be three or four years for some passerines over 50 for albatrosses and shearwaters , and more than 60 years for spa covers some rare species like the kakapo . Within a species, the driven depend on the season, but also the age of the birds and the general condition of these, and the knowledge of this phenomenon allows us to deduce the age of many wild birds 30 . The pneumatization of the skeleton is another feature used to estimate the age of the birds. Health Parasites of birds The parasite most common in birds belong to groups of mites, bird lice and worms. Other microscopic parasites, such as certain protozoa , causing diseases.
Dermanyssus gallinae , a louse gallinaceous. At least 2500 species of mites in 40 families 31 live in close contact with birds, their occupied nests , feathers, beaks, or even as some mites of hummingbirds . These mites can have a relationship just phoretic or may interfere with their hosts, causing itching, but can also be pests such as Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus . All bird species are concerned, even the penguins 31 have ticks. The lifestyle of a tick bird of course depends on the species, but the larvae usually live only in the nest. These mites have short reproductive cycles and are able to multiply very quickly. Some mites are hémophage and feed on dead skin as Dermanyssus , others, such as birds fly, are transported from flower to flower and feed on nectar. In the nests, we even discovered dwarf parasitic tick tick bird 31 . Too many ticks can affect the brood and even the life of the chick 31 . However, some studies may suggest that commensalism is not only detrimental to birds 31 . There are many studies on this complex interaction between mites and birds, many factors come into play. It is not easy to establish simple rules. The Mallophaga (including Ischnocera ) insects are also called “biting lice”. They Bankruptcy are usually subservient to a specific species of bird. Several species of flatworms , including tapeworms and flukes can infect birds that can carry them from one continent to another. For example, sea birds by eating shells , favor a parasitic trematode (such Meiogymnophalus , Himasthla , etc..) that can later be several host species, birds and shellfish 32 . Avian diseases
A serious case of ornithosis in a juvenile of blue heron Birds can play an important role vis-à-vis human being disease vectors in the spread over long distances as the ornithosis , the salmonella , the campylobacteriosis , the mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis), the bird flu , the giardiasis , and cryptosporidiosis 33 . Thus, these zoonoses are studied and spread carefully observed. Also due to the economic importance of poultry, the discovery of avian disease outbreaks may cause local authorities to take drastic action vis-à-vis these farms. So in September 2007, 205,000 birds were destroyed in Bavaria 34 , 160,000 poultry in Bangladesh in February 2008 35 following the discovery of strain of Containers bird flu, etc.. Some diseases can be more specific in an order such as Pacheco’s disease for the Psittaciformes . Other diseases Avian malaria Newcastle disease Mycoplasmosis Avian keratin disorder chicken cholera or avian Gumboro disease Laryngotracheitis of the bird Fowl pox (diphtheritic form) PBFD PSD Candidiasis avian Aspergillosis Behavior
The meaning The way birds do not differ fundamentally from those of mammals, but some remain poorly understood: it is not known very well, for example, how the birds manage to navigate during their migration. However, we know that their vision is remarkable, and are for example able to perceive ultraviolet light 36 . Raptors have a particular vision important, two to three times higher than that of men 36 ; the fovea of a buzzard has about 100,000 cones per square mm , against 20 000 in men 11 or 5 times more. The eyes are very large birds, those of the starling , for example, have a mass corresponding to 15% of the total cranial (for comparison, they represent only 1% of the cranial mass in men) 11 . Birds have a third eyelid , and an internal organ, located in the vitreous humor , called comb, role unclear. Some species have two daytime foveas instead of (for example: swallows , terns , swifts , hawks , hummingbirds …) 11 . Nocturnal birds generally have a limited visual field, but a high mobility of the head (which can sometimes run on more than 250 °) 11
The Kiwi (here haastii Apteryx ) is one of the few birds have an excellent sense of smell. His nostrils are exceptionally located at the distal end of the beak. It has more to the proximal end of the beak feathers fine using tactile setae. This nocturnal bird possesses against a rather inefficient. With few exceptions ( Kiwi , Vulture Pope 11 ), olfaction is, in birds, considered inefficient or absent. Some studies 37 , 38 , however, tend to show that the seabirds of the family Procellariidae are able to locate their prey, especially the smell of fish oil smell. Although birds have no external ear , their hearing is being developed, especially in some species such as Strigidae , in whom it is sufficient to locate prey in total darkness 36 . However the absence of the flag requires affiliate marketing guide rotate the head to collect sounds from different directions. The Salanganes or Guacharo caves are able, through their hearing performance coupled with their cries, to travel by echolocation . Unlike mammals , the suspension lift kits middle ear of birds with only one ossicle , the columella . At the inner ear , the cochlea is not spiral, but right 11 . The taste buds are not on the tip of the tongue, but the substance of language and in the throat, in addition they are few in number (200 for Anatinae against 9000 for a human) but other mechanisms could be implemented to taste. Thus the sense of touch (especially in the nose), for many birds, appears to be involved in the search for food. The sense of touch is given to the birds by various particles: the particles encapsulated Merkel (in the skin and inside the mouth) and Grandry (the palate) participate in the general sense of touch, they would the corresponding Meissner corpuscles of Mammals 39 . Herbst corpuscles (which correspond to the Pacinian corpuscles of Mammals 39 ) would be more sensitive to vibrations, they are particularly numerous on the bill and legs, especially in species that must find food “groping” language Picinae , beaks of Anatidae ( geese , ducks ) and many Scolopacidae ( sandpipers , snipes and sandpipers ), but also colorful beads that line the beaks of chicks many sparrows and Picinae 11 . Birds have several independent balance organs, the inner ear as in mammals, and an organ located in the basin. One of the most mysterious sense is the detection of Earth’s magnetic field , the organ that detects would be located in the nose or near the eyes 36 . This effect was first demonstrated experimentally in 1967 by Wolfgang Wiltschko on robins t shirt printing . Intelligence Main article: Intelligence of birds and animal intelligence .
A Ara macao drinking soda “in the can” Although “have a bird brain” means not having a great intelligence in many cultures , some bird species are showing relatively high cognitive abilities. The Corvidae are deemed to be the most intelligent of birds 40 , and the Psittacidae are also capable of outstanding performance, but with great disparities between species. On the other hand, it is difficult to define “intelligence” and also to distinguish what is part of the field of innate or area of the acquired , and thus to assess their thinking skills. Birds are capable of learning, we know for example that small cuckoo learn the song of their adoptive parents or the crows are learning by imitating their peers 41 . The most common capacities are certainly spatial representation (allowing them to move, to find a source of food or build nests sophisticated) and their communication skills. One of the most amazing ability is the ability fairly common 42 object to use as a electric cigarette tool. The New Caledonian Crow , for example, is able to use a stick to dislodge the insects which it feeds. Some birds are even able to count, such as Psittacidae , which are also known to not only reproduce the human voice, but also understand what they say and use their vocabulary to good use. There was also the birds that can be cured, for example by ingesting clay designed to combat the adverse effects of dietary toxins 43 . whole life insurance quotes Some faculties are almost unique, the eater of the East is able to “step into the shoes” of its predator, inferred to extrapolate that the predator can cheap auto transport see or not, shared only free grants by the faculty Hominidae 44 . Travel Most birds can fly, that is to say, to move through the air, there is only sixty species of flightless birds, who can not 45 . It is estimated that all the ancestors of modern birds were able to fly. The loss of this ability, often in remote locations, could be due to the absence of predator 45 (like the dodo ) or to low food resources making perilous the great expenditure of energy required by the flight 46 or still a great adaptation.
The Little Penguin has wings as well adapted to the flight to swim under water There are several techniques of flight , the shape of the wings shows the type of flight to which each species is adapted, the study of the long bones of the arm can even be more precise. Some species such as Spheniscidae (including penguins ), the little penguins , and shearwaters and dippers “fly” underwater to get around 47 . Other flightless birds generally have more robust bones of legs and no keel . A careful study of the skeleton indicates whether a bird can fly or not, this knowledge is used for the study of fossils of extinct species. Personality A British study on greenfinches in 2011 highlights the different traits (courage, shyness, curiosity) that reflect the level of oxidative stress and suggests that the birds have individual personalities 48 . Relationship between birds Communication The degree of sociability varies among species and seasons. Most species are in a period of their life at least, sociable, even if the behavioral differences between species are very important. The birds used in this context, several means of communication . Although their plumage in either one, they mostly use different visual signals consist of various movements. They can also emit vocalizations or other sounds. The complexity of these signals is maximum during courtship displays and provides a means of communication most codified the animal kingdom. Relations are mainly of three types: parental relationships; male-female relations and competition between males; interspecific relationships (several types of commensalism , especially food, are known from birds, vis-à-vis other species but also the cleptoparasitisme and nest parasitism). Intraspecific relationships Couple
Geese are monogamous birds for life. Males do not participate in nest building or incubation, but defend the territory and participate in raising chicks. 95% of bird species are monogamous . In a number of cases (especially in larger species to long life), these couples are made for life. The cranes of Japan are the same symbols of fidelity in the Far East. Other species are monogamous for the year, it is called serial monogamy. Among the strict monogamous species, many of them in that copulation with other partners can intervene, as appropriate 49 . In these cases, there electronic cigarette are behaviors of collaborative genetic father with the couple 50 . For some auto insurance rates species, monogamy is more related to the adoption of the same territory as a true monogamy 51 . The solar power polygyny is found in 2% of species, polyandry or polygynandrie in less than 1% for each. Among the Anatidae for example, the “rape” is also practiced 52 . If the males help the females in the breeding of small for many species, this Cell Phone Accessories is not systematic, but this behavior is much more common in birds than in other classes of vertebrates. The presence of males is often necessary for incubation and / or raising young, and in some cases females do not participate (as in phalaropes). In some species, the tasks are strictly divided: incubation, nest defense, feeding small 53 … The matching Main article: Courtship bird . The females are susceptible to many criteria and the males are competing 54 , although in Phalaropes , it is the females who choose males 55 .
Copulation of Sparrows One of the most important criteria is the quality of the territory proposed by the male, this may correspond to a few stones to a penguin , a nest very sophisticated, or a wide area for raptors alone. The male may also develop by vocalizations, visual cues very sophisticated and codified, and even fighting. The health of the male can also be evaluated by the color of the feathers. In some species somewhat territorial, these displays are made by groups of males in a small area called the parade area . The best known case is that of the ruff . The rearing Related article: nesting .
A black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) feeding its young After fertilization, without exception, for example in the guillemot ‘s egg which poses bare rock, the female lays in a nest. This nest was the size and composition vary according to species. The egg contains a number of eggs that varies according to species 1 Jewish Wedding Gifts (eg in Procellariidae or large raptors) until spawning in the records of 20 Partridge 56 . A significant number of eggs in one nest may be caused by the laying of several females: this is a regular at the Ostrich and occasionally in many species such as Shelduck and Mallard in Anatidae.
The eggs of the blackbird are blue These eggs have a hard shell, consisting mainly of calcium carbonate , color specific to each species. Their size is variable, and their weight varies from a low of 0.027 g at the Colibri to a high of 2350 g in the Ostrich 57 . The embryo to develop, must be maintained at a constant temperature. Most birds incubate their (s) egg (s) by (s) smoldering. This practice can be energy intensive 58 and has a variable duration (from 9 to 10 days in the Gros-beak to a maximum of 82 days in the Wandering Albatross 59 ).
An example of precocial chicks: chicks of mallard
An example of altricial chicks: chicks in blackbird For some species called early or precocial , the chicks are able to immediately follow their parents, the extreme case being that of Megapodes where the young are completely independent 60 or that of chicks Murrelet who leave the nest the night after they hatch , following calls from parents to the sea, where they are raised away from terrestrial predators 61 . In contrast , in species called altricial as Ardeidae , the chicks are born blind and without feathers. This is the Frigatebird holds the record length of time that a chick acquires its plumage after six months and is fed by its parents for fourteen months 62 . Efforts to be made by parents to feed them are also very different depending on the species. In some species, the couple is assisted by another member of the species 63 . This is particularly present in the species of corvids but it was also observed in species as diverse as Xénique climber , the Kite or Australian Pie . The youth of the previous brood regularly participate in feeding the brood of chicks in the following Moorhen . In the few hours after the outbreak , the animated object that the bird sees, is regarded by him as his parent. This behavior, particularly strong in birds is called the impregnation . Social relations
Cloud of red-billed workers ( Quelea quelea ) in Namibia Most species are social, they may be throughout the year as the rook , the terns , the gulls or a limited period of the year such as sandpipers . In the latter case, the groups may have a specific purpose such as migration or nesting. Some species live in groups multi-specific, others in groups of the same species. When they are gregarious , they demonstrate social or collective behaviors can be very complex as the hunt group, the establishment of hierarchy, cooperation subsidiary in the rearing, the presence of watchers ( Canada goose ) 64 , the formation of clouds or stolen mono or multi-specific, or simply the formation of colonies . These behaviors are complementary to the need for territoriality , and adults of some species live in colonies become very aggressive vis-à-vis all intruders below a minimum distance of their nest ( gannet ) usually corresponding to distance that can reach with its beak couveur without leaving the nest. Interspecific Interspecific parasitism Some birds are cleptoparasites , that is to say that they eat, at least in part, to catch prey for other species. This is especially Skuas and certain species of Laridae 65 , 66 , but many species are involved 67 , including raptors and waders 68 .
an egg of brown-headed cowbird in a brood of Eastern Phoebe Some species of birds lay voluntarily in the nests of other birds of the same species or not. This brood parasitism exists in two forms, some species are required to use this method because they are unable to raise their own young, and others use this method only occasionally, as some Phaethornithinae 69 . The female cuckoo , for example, lay an egg directly into the nests of different species of sparrows , and they raise him often at the expense of their own brood. This cuckoo learns the song of the same adoptive parents. The Great Spotted Cuckoo parasite almost exclusively magpie . This behavior also exists in several ducks such as pochard , which generally lays in its own nest but also frequently deposited eggs in the nests of other species, especially the tufted duck 71 , 72 , 73 . This type of parasitism, even in the Canvasback from the Redhead parasitism where the goal is limited to the use of the nest, may have a significant negative effect in the longer term, even in If the additional chicks do not kill or do not compete nutritionally chicks reach 74 . Predation Adult birds of the largest species have few predators except for man, other species of birds but also cats , mustelinae and some Viverridae . Other bird species such as Stephen Xénique have disappeared or are seriously threatened by predation from domestic animals such as cats . But it is the eggs and chicks are most vulnerable and suffer heavy predation. Some birds secrete chemicals against predators, for example the Procellariiformes are able to eject an unpleasant odor of grease 75 . There are also some poisonous birds . Examples include the batrachotoxin in the skin and feathers of the Ifrit Kowald of 76 and some species of Pitohui 76 , 77 , 78 , all from New Guinea . Birds commensalism
Red-billed Oxpecker on a white rhino Some birds, like the Oxpecker feed by removing large mammals or reptiles of their parasites. Some waterfowl feed sometimes taking advantage of the displacement caused by prey feeding on other species. Such behavior commensals were observed in the little grebe in Europe, particularly in France vis-à-vis the mute swan and Gadwall 79 , and Madagascar vis-à-vis the white-backed duck , the Whistling widower , the anserelle dwarf and the red-billed Duck 80 . They were also noted in the little egret , the great egret and heron vis-à-vis the Great Cormorant 81 . In the puffin Parkinson , commensal what food it seems compulsory and carried both on other species of seabirds on cetaceans such as dolphins 82 . Some species of seed-eating birds and frugivorous promote seed dispersal of plant species, such as the mistletoe by the Thrush , and others like hummingbirds are the only ones that can pollinate some flowers 83 . Many species, by their cries of alarm, prevent their potential prey species and others of an approaching predator. Distribution
Distribution areas Birds are one of the most homogeneous of the living, their architecture is indeed conditioned by rigorous adjustments on the fly. We lists, according to the authors almost 10 000 species (9800 84 10 050 species in 85 ). Their distribution is global and depends on the season, because many species are migratory . The highest diversity is found in tropical regions in the continental area, the lower is the level of the polar regions. Many species are gregarious , populations are concentrated at certain sites, mainly in denver martial arts high latitudes. This may be due to a speciation or an extinction higher in these regions 86 .
The Snow Petrel is a bird on venturing further south, up into the Antarctic continent Some birds such as snow petrels are able to venture up to 400 km in Antarctica 87 , further than any other vertebrate. Some penguins can dive to over 500 meters 88 . Several species of sea birds have adapted so well to the marine environment they return to the land for nesting 89 . It seems that we can spread the bird families into six groups according to their geographical origins 90 : pantropical zone, the zone or panboréale holarctic, the pan-American became the Neotropics, Palearctic zone, the zone Nearctic, and the latter being formed from a group of highly mobile birds. The continental drift has played an obvious role in the endemism of certain families, such as hummingbirds are present only in America while the Emus are present only in Australia . The area Australasian , as for the class of mammals, the ecozone which has the highest casino rate of endemism with 16 families of 64 and for example 308 of 385 sparrows 91 . [Show] Distributions ecozone 91 See also: List by country Changes in distributions The main cause of expansion of the natural range of a bird is in search of food. It can be either random migration of a wrong or a way to slow adaptation. The extension of the range for some species over others is growing strongly in recent years and they are probably all due to human action on the environment, such as global warming or habitat disturbance d of origin. These changes in area have always existed and cause long-term speciation, and therefore they are a normal process of evolution .
The Myna, native to tropical Asia, has seen its range very extended after its introduction by humans in many countries. But the acceleration of this phenomenon, changes in area show an overall change of the environment. In addition to warming, the urbanization and deforestation are also involved. In North America, it was observed that Scardafella Inca is gradually replaced by mourning dove , more adapted to the presence of man 94 . Some species have become invasive after direct introduction by humans, such as rock doves , and starlings or Myna in Australia . These species have been introduced to fight against locusts . The pheasant was introduced in many places to hunt 95 . Others, like the widow conure , pet bird, have just escaped. They are found in colonies located in North America 96 , Spain or Belgium. Some wild species have spread beyond their natural range following the extension of certain practices farming as the cattle egret 97 , Milvago chimachima 98 , the Cockatoo rosalbin 99 . Finally, the species domesticated spread through the human herds like golden cock became domestic cock . It should be noted that the house sparrow , which is home to the extent where he followed the man everywhere lives of human activities. These colonizers, their reproductive strategies or food, compete and eventually displace native species causing human scale, a reduction in genetic diversity . Overall, bird populations are in decline . Evolutionary history
Main articles: Evolutionary history of birds and phylogenetic classification of birds .
Model of a theropod , Compsognathus
Model of Archaeopteryx
Model of a Confuciusornis
model of a Enianthornithe , Iberomesornis The study of the evolutionary history of birds is made difficult by the fact that fossils of birds in good condition are hard to find. However the oldest fossils considered to belong to this class back to the Jurassic higher there are more than 150 Ma . If one wants to assume the dinosaurs as a clade monophyletic , consider the birds as the only existing representatives of the dinosaurs. They are from the group of theropods 100 (which are the velociraptors for example). This class had a first speciation into two main branches that would survive the extinction of the Triassic-Jurassic , the Enantiornithomorpha and Ornithurae . The Ornithurae and especially Neornithes will experience a major evolutionary radiation . Many species will disappear at the Cretaceous extinction , including all Enantiornithomorpha . In fact only the branch outcome of Neornithes , the super-orders of Paleognathae and Neognathes , including eg Anseriformes , Galliformes and Neoaves , will survive 100 . The birds will continue to evolve and differentiate throughout the Cenozoic (since 65 Ma). Thus Craciformes come from the branch of the Galliformes or Passeriformes are from Neoaves . Now considered 27 different orders. [Show] Comparison of features ancestral and derived in the evolution of birds The relationship between birds and humans
Economic and social role of birds Role food Poultry
Barnyard Scheuerer Otto (1862-1934) Birds raised for consumption are called birds . Poultry is the most consumed San Diego Homes For Rent domestic chicken . The ancestral species named Gallus gallus was domesticated between 6 th and 3 th millennium BC. AD and many races have been selected. Since then, the poultry has not ceased to be an important economic issue. World production of poultry has increased tenfold with the transformation of the poultry by the method of battery cages . The production of domestic chickens has increased fourfold between 1964 and 2004 101 , other common birds in a proportion at least equal. In 2004 , production of all other poultry does not exceed 10% by volume of production of the latter 101 and a total of about 81 million tonnes in 2005 . Poultry reared according to the characteristics of their race are said meat or egg production. Some breeders specialize in the production of chicks , on the other fattening or in the production of eggs free ipad . This type of farming result several controversies concerning eg animal welfare , production of manure pollutant in excess, the threat to biodiversity by reducing poultry breeds, the introduction of resistance to antibiotics by a non-rational use of them, a food safety hazardous because of both poor nutrition of birds and the proliferation of zoonoses , the spread of zoonotic disease by transport. In the strict production of poultry associated industry specializing in slaughtering, processing industry in food consumption, processing industry products and packaging, a food manufacturing industry for poultry, a transportation industry, what makes this agricultural sector a major industrial challenge. The issue eclipse the problems. Some wildlife species are now domesticated and raised for their meat, their eggs and feathers like ostrich or quail . Hunting and Fishing
The practice of traditional cormorant fishing in the southwest of China is threatened and may disappear in the future to be reduced in Japan as a tourist attraction The hunt for birds, birds trained in the context of game , has historically been an important food issue 102 road rage which even led dozens of species to extinction or near extinction 103 . Today, hunting Bird food is a necessity in developed countries, but is regarded either as a distraction or as a sport. Some use traditional hunting a bird to catch the game, such as falconry . In South-East of cormorants were once used for fishing 104 . In the West, hunters prefer to use dogs to flush birds and then shoot the gun. The practice of snaring and the glue has also been used but is now prohibited. In France, the hunting of certain species are highly controversial as the pigeon-shooting . The bird hunting practices in our country are often in conflict Unlock iPhone with European laws. Avian fauna becoming rare because of hunting and agriculture, some hunting associations organize breeding birds in the wild as Plastic Storage Bins pheasants or quail to be released so that members of these associations have targets for the hunting season . These birds are often hybrids sterile. Observers point out that they have not the behavior of birds born in the wild. Related article: Recipes for poultry and game birds engagement ring . Roles in human societies Other breeding birds can also be used for purposes other than food. Various breeds from domesticated Rock Dove are used as messengers or as food. They have played an important role as messengers during the Second World War . One of these pigeons Cher Ami, was even awarded the Croix de Guerre U.S. 105 . Today these practices have changed. The pigeon has become a fun activity. The fighting cocks are sources of paris, in some countries [Who?] are organized ostrich races.
The Falconry is an ancient activity (at least 35 century), formerly dedicated to hunting. Today, she is moving more and more towards the tourist attraction Several species of birds are captured and confined to distract the man, or by their songs, either for their feathers. The breeding birds as pets has become widespread. Falconry became almost everywhere with objectives other than hunting, such as raptors are centers e cigarette of attraction for tourists to bring in some theme parks such as Castle of Milandes 106 , the castle of Valkenburg 107 the castle of Bouillon 108 , etc.. The passion for birds has created a specialized tourism trips consisting of observations. Adjustments were made on some sites to facilitate these observations. For individuals, an important financial sector became specialized in the food of wild birds building nests. One study estimated that the United Kingdom , 75% of households fed birds denver accident lawyer 109 . The feathers are used to make clothes, quilts and pillows, etc.. The eider ducks or geese are known for their down for example. These practices tend to decrease with respect to the use of decorative feathers. The guano , droppings from sea birds, is used as fertilizer and is highly sought after, its operation has been a source of income for Peru to the xix th century . In addition, several types of locksmith commensalism between birds and humans are known: for example, Indicatoridae are a family of birds that are useful to humans where to find wild hives. Commercial uses of their image
Euro Greek, representing an owl In advertising, as symbols or as a corporate mascot , also famous fictional birds, pictures of birds are used in a more or less stylized (see Bird postal ). In the U.S., the image of rapacious predators, so without the vultures, is widely used, such as the Seattle Seahawks . The owl, symbol of Athena, goddess of wisdom in ancient Greece , is used by various banks and insurance companies and is a symbol used by the Greek state. Birds are also represented on postage stamps . Birds in human culture Birds or their eggs , by their distribution, are known to all human cultures and this has directly influenced their customs , their religions by the symbolism associated with them, and their lives in many ways. The symbolism of the bird
A heraldic eagle on the Austrian flag They were then assigned, as all pets to humans, characteristics more or less anthropomorphic depending on the species but also in general. The bird or its associated features (such as eggs, feathers, wings or claws) can be regarded as a symbol. The flight of the bird is naturally carrying a symbol of freedom as expressed in the Greek myth of Icarus . For example, the eagle is a symbol of majesty is why we find it on the arms of various empires . Peace is symbolized by the dove of peace . Most birds are regarded as wow gold positive symbols, but there are exceptions depending on the crops. The vultures have a negative reputation for many people, however, Parsis and zorostriens before them, give these birds a singular role. They offer the corpse of their dead to vultures, the burial or cremation is an insult to the earth and fire. In the Middle Ages in the West always, raptors , especially at night as the Strigiformes ( owls , owls ) though very beneficial to farmers as devastating eating species such as small rodents, were considered as evil or harmful. A custom Relevant Life Policies was to nail the doors the birds to drive away evil spirits and all other Strigiformes . Several species of raptors were also hunted. These animals are now protected and the current image of majesty is the strongest, although the vultures with their ungrateful appearance, are still poorly accepted 110 . In Africa , some songs and calls are interpreted and translated by some people who take a particular meaning, whether positive or negative. The birds produce these cries are deemed good or evil 111 . The martial art of bird mimic the agility of the bird, to stimulate the lungs: He works on the amplitude of breathing, and relaxation of upper limb joints. Birds in French In French, for example, sing like a bird singing merrily means. Having a bird’s appetite means eating very little. A brain or head of a bird is a carefree, careless, thoughtless, and an individual who lives like a bird, does not care for the morrow. Be free as a bird is to have no hindrance. Be conducted to provide names of birds means being insulted copiously. In popular parlance, a bird is an individual with a rather negative sense. A bird of passage which refers to an individual no more be heard once gone, a bird of ill omen is a bearer of bad news. A night owl is a night owl. A rare bird is a person we are looking to contact but goes somewhat available. Many expressions are linked to specific species based on the symbols associated with species considered: how the peacock to the beautiful, to be a pigeon to be a naive, a goose for a naive young woman, a mother hen to be a very caring mother. Terms vulture , raven , hawk , and as well as those shared by other scavengers STD Testing are not pleasant adjectives. The use of the word bird and the name of the birds for other uses a single name is very common. Many artistic works, their titles, refer to the term “bird” as The Firebird , The Bird and the Child , The Bird with the Crystal Plumage , The Birds , The Blue Bird , The King and Bird , The Clay Bird , The Birds of America , The Experience with the bird in the air pump without there necessarily a direct relationship with the birds. Other works are a natural reference to particular species, such as The Pelican Brief or very indirectly in Chrome Wire Shelving The Maltese Falcon or Snipe The Snipe is a bird deemed stupid. It can also be no connection with birds, like the film The Wild Geese . Many plants also have this term, eg Néottie bird nest , bird of paradise . We also find that term in places like the town of Field-d’Oiseau or for miscellaneous manufactured articles ranging from the bird drinker at the Firebird . In literature and poetry, many works are subject to the bird. We can start the list by the praise of birds Giacomo Leopardi (in Little moral works, trans. Joel Gayraud, Paris, Allia, 1992, repr. 2007), Chantecler, by Edmond Rostand, the Bird zero, Peuchmaurd Pierre, Paris, Seghers, 1984, the bird deaths, André-Marcel Adamek, Brussels, Labor, 1995, The blue wing of the tales, Fabienne Raphoz, Paris, José Corti, 2009, etc.. Birds of fiction Main article: List of birds of fiction . The mythical bird
Phoenix of the Forbidden City Among the mythical birds include the Rokh of “ The Arabian Nights “is a giant bird of prey capable of capturing ships 112 . The Pouākai , according to legends Māori , was able to capture a human. This mythical bird is probably the sublimation of the Haast eagle giant , disappeared with the extermination of the moas by those Māori 113 . The Greek Sphinx , the harpy , Pegasus , the sirens , the chimeras were hybrid creatures with traits of birds and are quite hostile to man. The phoenix , symbol of rebirth is a mythical online cash advance creature that has been freely used by Christians who see it as a symbol of the rebirth of Jesus Christ . Garuda is a giant bird of the Indian mythology , the incarnation of Vishnu . The Simurgh , the bird of Persian mythology , is also present in the Avesta and the Shahnameh . Tales There are many tales and legends featuring birds 114 In the West, in some areas to hide the existence of sexuality to children, it is said that babies are made to parents by storks , making this animal a positive symbol. This legend probably saved the extinction of the populations of these species in eastern France. The goose that lays the golden eggs is both a myth about the chance an allegory on the economic importance of poultry. The fables of Jean de La Fontaine , for example, depict characters zoomorphic . The animations
Donald Duck , a character from Walt Disney is so famous that a duck has a star on the Walk of Fame to Hollywood In the West, there are hundreds of cartoons and comic books with birds such as main and secondary characters. They are caricatures which are given a character that is ready for these birds, for example, the chicken is silly or frivolous mother hen, the cock is bold and arrogant as in the animated Charlie the rooster produced by Looney Tunes even if the spelling of certain features, such as Birds in the Spring are more realistic. Orville the albatross of Bernard and Bianca , not just a comic approach, it is. Small birds are friendly or malignant as the canary payday loan Tweety from Looney Tunes . Often, the ducks are angry, loud and rogues like Donald Duck of Disney and Daffy Duck in Looney Tunes . Raptors are generally bad , as Beaky Buzzard , Henery Hawk and more recently the Falcon Stuart Little 2 and compete with nice mouse or other birds such as Woody Woodpecker . Faced with the heroes of these works Manichean , the bad guys always end up empty-handed. Among these famous birds include also Woodstock , the best friend of Snoopy , Chilly Willy the penguin, Yankee Doodle Pigeon in Hanna-Barbera , and Road Runner , the Greater Roadrunner from Coyote and Road Runner . In the most provocative cartoons, these stereotypes are less real as in Cleo and Chico , the characters being anti-hero . Through these cartoons, some types of human relations-birds may be mentioned, such as battery farming in Chicken Run and thus be denounced. Film The film is full of situations where birds are shown, discussed, or even the center of the action. A work has particularly marked the spirits of the xx th century is that of Alfred Hitchcock , The Birds , taken from the title story of Daphne du Maurier presents birds as a threat in the form of dangerous clouds. Birdy is a work in which a Man thinks he’s a bird. Several documentary films , theatrical release, has been made, as the March of the Penguins of Luc Jacquet and Winged Migration of Jacques Perrin . Birds in art
Mourning Dove by John James Audubon The auctions online birds appear in the culture and rock art from prehistoric times where they are represented Teacher Clock Hours in rock paintings 115 , 116 , for example in the scene of wells in the Cave of Lascaux . Homer used the birds in his work and including Rossignol in the Odyssey . Because of the elegance and complexity of his song, many poets have imitated 117 . In medieval art, too, the poet Sufi Iranian Farid ud-Din Attar , wrote the story of a band of pilgrims leaving 30 birds under the leadership of the hoopoe in search of a Simurgh in his book ( Persia منطق الطیر [aT-MmanTiq Tuyûr], “ The Conference of the Birds “) in 1177. At the end of their quest, they discover their inner self (pun on Simurgh = 30 birds). The birds have continued to inspire artists by their shapes, colors and symbols which they are associated as the Peacock Throne . Some artists have specialized successfully on birds such as John James Audubon was to give his name to the National Audubon Society 118 . At Ximena Armas , the bird is the first victim of an outraged nature, it is often present in only a few scattered feathers. The relationship between albatrosses and the marine theme of the lament of the Ancient Mariner in Samuel Taylor Coleridge is an example of allegorical poetry. Birds have inspired many poems such as “the albatross” of Charles Baudelaire in “ The Flowers of Evil ” 119 or “the death of the eagle” of José-Maria de Heredia in the collection “Trophies” 120 . Bird Famous Some birds have become famous as Alex the parrot and William of Orange . Religion
The angel peacock, symbol of Malek Taus, the god of Yezidism If several religions have some birds used directly as a religious symbol, most have used the egg, feathers or wings. Some religions consider some birds as carriers of a divine essence as their symbol (s) god (s). For example, like many other types of animals, Egyptian religion ancient raised with great pomp and respect specimens hawk , of Ibis , the Hoopoe in their temple. Some people Dravidian consider the blue peacocks as divine manifestation of Mother Earth 121 . Other people, more simply, they represent (s) god (s) in the form of bird, such as Yezed representing Melek Taus as a peacock , like the Christians use the dove as a manifestation of a species of Holy Trinity , the Holy Spirit . The Bible also uses the dove with several meanings associated fear, passivity, mourning and beauty. The color of the “white dove” in fact a symbol of purity, which was very common in the Middle East in ancient times 122 . Human interpretations of these messages are not uniform since the Hoopoe is sacred in ancient Egypt, it is a symbol of virtue in Persia and is a sign of war in Scandinavia 123 .
The two ravens Hugin and Munin free grants on the shoulders of Odin in an illustration of the xviii th century Some cults and mythologies of the powers attributed to some birds, without making the gods, as the role of messenger of the gods assigned to Hugin and Munin , two ravens in the Nordic mythologies 124 . They can also be simply unconscious instrument of a god. The Bible, which contains the story of the Epic of Gilgamesh says Noah loose a dove and a raven to find land after the flood 125 . In the Book of Kings , ravens are sent by God to feed Elijah 126 . best web hosting In the Qur’an, Allah sent a raven teaches Cain how to bury his brother. They can act as messengers of the gods for priests as in the Rapa Nui mythology where Tangata manu , the bird-man, the king of Easter Island was designated a race to discover an egg. This was probably the case with all ancient Mediterranean cultures. Philo of Alexandria , a Hellenized Jewish philosopher, recognizes the role of messenger birds 127 . In the Roman religion , for example, the flight of birds or their entrails were interpreted by the soothsayers and oracles to determine the will of the gods. Also, some religions, birds can be offered in sacrifice . The Leviticus states that the dove and pigeons are the only birds offrables sacrifice, the rich, He can sacrifice cattle. If adult birds are used as a religious symbol, it is the same for eggs, quintessential symbols of rebirth and purity of form, but also for some of their behaviors. The migration of birds is considered a sign of divine perfection in the Quran 128 . Birds are seen as symbols rather beneficial, a possible illustration of this is that the Western iconography wings of angels , creatures beneficial, are represented as winged birds, diurnal animals, while those of demons , evil creatures are depicted with wings of bats , nocturnal animals. Study of birds The discipline that studies birds is called the ornithology . Here you can view a list of ornithologists . The various sciences studied in birds Articles: ornithology , chronology of ornithology and bird list .
A birder takes measurements of nestling Gull The study of birds is a science practiced by a large majority of fans and not only by ornithologists. Their observation and information gathering are often simple techniques that require little equipment. Scientists “official” (not many in most countries) are based on networks of amateur observers, sometimes very expanded (2 million Britons adhere to the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds ). A distinction is usually several branches in ornithology for example the Oologie for the study of eggs, Palaeo-oologie for the study of fossil eggs. The Ethno-ornithology studies it, relations between men and birds. Ornithology scientists now relies on systematics, the ethology and comparative psychology, the molecular biology , the genetics , the dynamic populations , but also paleontology (for understanding the phylogeny of birds). The Darwin finches are for example responsible for our understanding of the phenomenon of speciation and mechanisms of evolution of species. In particular, it showed that many species are threatened (especially by the destruction of their habitat and the widespread use of pesticides , including avicides ) and the birds at the top of food chains are indicators of pollution and very sensitive the state of the ecosystem. Common birds are not spared (for example, according to the STOC program from 1989 to 2007 , their populations have declined overall by 18% in France.) Birds laboratory The class of birds is one of the most studied classes in the laboratory. Many species are studied because of the ease of rearing conditions. Some species are studied for their vocalizations such as zebra finches (species having also undergone extensive genetic studies 129 ), others for their intelligence like that kind of Corvus . Chickens and pigeons are also popular for biology and comparative psychology. Classification and nomenclature Main article: International Commission of the French names of birds . Usage and etymology of the word bird Bird comes from the low Latin aucellus , which is a form of syncopated avicellus , short for opinions 130 . Per bird, usually meant all existing species with feathers, as well as many extinct ancestors or relatives of current species, which are grouped in the subclass of Neornithes . Little of the bird is named after bird or chick . The young bird is called juvenile or immature. Several species of birds have a bird in the term of their common name as the bird-palm , the lyrebirds or Lyrebird, hummingbirds , bird of paradise , birds, elephants or Aepyornis , birds of paradise islands, the ‘ royal bird described by Buffon 131 … but some species are more generically as the name “Storm Bird” which means the Hydrobatidae 130 . Unlike most other animals, each species of bird has a standard French name assigned by the unique CINFO . It also includes birds according to their habitat, such as seabirds or geography, or biomes (tropical birds), they migrate or are sedentary. Thus we speak of waterfowl, marine, terrestrial, migratory birds of passage, travelers, nesting, flightless birds, climbers, divers, jumpers, birds of prey, diurnal birds at night. See also: Alphabetical list of common names of birds History of scientific classification of birds Main articles: history of birds , Aves (phylogenetic classification) and phylogenetic classification of life (first edition) .
Board comparing the skeleton of a human and a bird. Extracted from the history of birds; Pierre Belon. The History of the nature of the bird, with descriptions and remove the natural naive portraicts published in 1555 by Pierre Belon is a first effort since classification Aristotle which is largely based. It describes all the birds he knows and groups according to their behavior and anatomy: birds of prey, waterbirds, omnivores, small birds (in turn subdivided in insectivores and granivores). New terms, forged on Latin roots, will be created and passed into the vernacular as waterfowl . The first scientific classification was published in 1676 by Francis Willughby and John Ray as the Ornithologiae 132 .
It is in the 10 th edition of his Systema Naturae as Carl Linnaeus proposed a classification into six groups of birds Gradually, especially through the work of Carl Linnaeus published in 1758 one hundred thirty-three , this classification will develop with (among others) to work on the comparative anatomy and the embryology . The most commonly accepted classification is then that of Sharpe in the Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum , which proposed orders of waterfowl , wading birds , fowl , coils or pigeons, climbers, passerines , raptors , runners. Subsequently, these terms will no longer be considered as having a scientific sense as waterfowl or wading and are now considered obsolete from the point of view taxonomy . One of the most important systematic in the late xx th century is that developed by James Lee Peters . The classification of Howard and Moore drift. In the traditional view of the evolution of modern birds ( Neornithes ) is placed at the base of the phylogenetic tree , after the ratites and tinamous , groups of sea birds such as penguins , the grebes , and loons and pelicans , and so Buy Phen375 on. In the late 1970s and throughout the next decade, Charles Gald Sibley and Jon Edward Ahlquist conducting studies based on methods of DNA hybridization , which profoundly changed the understanding of the phylogeny of birds. The new classification has shown that ducks and fowl were the closest relatives of ratites (which incorporate the tinamous) forming paléognathes. The Galloanserae are an ancient lineage in Néognathes. Groups of sea birds traditionally considered archaic now placed in the order Ciconiiformes expanded, which also includes hawks ( Accipitridae , Sagittariidae (Aves) and Falconidae ) and shorebirds ( Scolopacidae , Charadriidae , Laridae , etc.). . In this new Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy of living things, called phylogenetic classification , the birds are part of archosaurs that include a large number of fossils called dinosaurs . This routine 134 is generally accepted in America, while the resistance is more important in Europe. Research to understand the relative position of each group of birds and other areas continues that genetics are explored. A Russian researcher has shown that the structure of the shell eggs may be useful in determining the relationship between birds 135 . The difficult relationship between birds and men Diseases transmitted to humans Birds can be carriers, healthy or not, disease transmissible to humans (see “Avian Diseases”). Birds can also cause allergies in particular related to feathers. Fight against the birds
Cloud of starlings over Rome. This species can form bands with thousands of individuals who can generate great damage in orchards and towns
Measure of protection against rock doves in Switzerland Some birds are considered pests . The causes are various, and some highly controversial. For example, they consume small fruits or corn as the red-winged blackbirds 100 day loans , and sparrows , some starlings , the grosbeaks , some crows and ravens 136 . The pigeons are in turn a nuisance to many buildings in England on the way to attack some cultures. The means in place to fight against them can be very different. Slaughter by some hunters raptors , particularly useful to farmers because most hunting vermin, but perceived as unfair competition for hunting Lagomorpha , has greatly reduced populations. The vultures in the south of France, without formal proofs accused of killing sheep and cows, were exterminated, before being reintroduced 137 . Other species have become invasive following introduction initially considered useful as human, are subject to measures to be reducing their populations or the eradication . For indigenous wildlife, farmers seek above all to prevent birds from eating the plants they cultivate. The means used are different, they may be sound deterrents, repellents visible such as scarecrows , hunting, destruction of nests, trapping, crop protection by nets or bags, for chemical repellents by plant growing repulsive 136 . Some raptors are high to scare the other birds around airports to protect aircraft from collisions . They also reintroduced into the cities to fight against pigeons regarded as pests. Indeed, the latter, in addition to transmitting certain diseases, damaging public buildings with their droppings. It is also forbidden to eat in many cities. Spines are placed on these buildings to prevent them from landing, similar pastry mechanisms also exist on some solar panels so that their waste do not reduce yields. Some seasonal clouds, like the waxwings , are considered a curse in many countries of Eastern Europe 138 . They travel in swarms to the west during the harsh winters, the cold seemed to bring with them. Human action in the current disparity Articles: the Holocene Extinction , Protection of birds and List of threatened birds . The evolution occurs on a scale too slow to be clearly perceived by humans, but there is a certain decrease in the number of species, but especially the number of individuals in many species. And 12% of the species were at the beginning of xxi th century recognized endangered by the IUCN . The causes of death are loss and / or fragmentation of their habitats 139 ,
Two Moas , birds of about 3 m high, driven by the Haast’s eagle , raptor approximately 3 m scale: the disappearance of these two species has human causes hunting (for some species): the man, by his direct predation is the cause of the disappearance of several species of birds like the Moa or Dodo , poisoning, or a weakened immune from pesticides and other pollutants . Many birds that are at the top of the food pyramid as such are the victims of pollution by concentrating pollutants. Some species have been rising more or less unexpected of hybridization and some closely related species, seeing their habitat is breaking up , cross, producing the same quantity of sterile hybrids so important that it can put these species at risk. For example, many hybrid hummingbirds found in the north west of South America can be a threat to the conservation of these species into separate species. Some rare species are trafficked (the parrots , for example). The loss of the gene is a problem for the long term, which also, and more domesticated birds, and livestock ( chickens , ducks , geese , in particular, following the industrial production of day-old chicks from breeding selected). The CNRS in 2005 estimated that 50% of domestic breeds are endangered 140 . The spread of zoonoses , because of the conditions of factory farms and transport, is also a threat, flocks that constitute potential reserves of illness or homes susceptible to infectious incubations. Protection of payment protection insurance Birds Articles: protection of birds and declining bird populations . The list of bird species threatened with extinction becoming longer, although the birds are mobile and seem to escape more easily than hcg diet other species to the threats facing them. The Red List of Threatened Species, edited by the IUCN and updated May 14, 2009, with 1227 species of endangered birds, including 12% “ globally threatened with extinction “(192 species critically endangered, two more than in 2008, with nine scrabble word finder been added to this category, and 7 have been reclassified in another category, “threatened”) 141 . Governments, and numerous associations for the protection of nature or ornithological societies , working to protect birds in various ways, as the law, protection and restoration of sites, and breeding of captive populations in the context of their reintroduction . Some of them are also aimed at the protection of breeds including domestic diversity decreases.
Headquarters in Gland, Switzerland Among the most representative NGOs working in the field of bird conservation are BirdLife International and its national delegations, regional and county, the IUCN , etc.. Conventions and international agreements regulate certain aspects relating to the protection of species: Washington Convention ( CITES ), the Bern Convention , Bonn Convention , Agreement on the Conservation of Migratory Waterbirds Waterbirds (AEWA) Migratory Bird Treaty Act, etc.. Efforts by the different partners have in 2004, only sixteen species of birds that have disappeared without measures, are still existing 142